Skeleton Pirate

Skeleton Pirate
Artist: LindaB

WELCOME TO STRONTIUM FOR BONES BLOG

Have you experienced, or read about, negative, and even dangerous, side effects from Fosamax (alendronate), Boniva (ibandronate), Actonel (risedronate), and other bisphosphonates prescribed for osteoporosis? If you have, then rest assured there is a safe, effective treatment for this condition. Strontium, primarily in the form of strontium citrate, is taken orally once a day.

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Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Vitamin K2 Controversy



Japanese researchers have published several articles on vitamin K2, such as the following one: “Vitamin K2 (Menatetrenone) Effectively Prevents Fractures and Sustains Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Osteoporosis” American researchers have been unable to duplicate the results. One study found that “Vitamin K Treatment Reduces Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin but Does Not Alter Bone Turnover, Density, or Geometry in Healthy Postmenopausal North American Women.”

Each study has weaknesses. For example, the Japanese researchers did not use placebo capsules for vitamin K2 in the control group. Therefore, they cannot exclude the possibility that this may have differentially affected the behavior of study participants in the control and treatment groups, although they consider this possibility unlikely. Limitations of the study on North American women include the relatively short (1 yr) study duration and the inclusion of only healthy women. Thus, the exclusion of osteoporotic women and, importantly, the short duration of this study prohibited use of fracture reduction as a study endpoint.

Here are the two abstracts with links to the full articles:

Abstract to Asian Article:
We attempted to investigate whether vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) treatment effectively prevents the incidence of new fractures in osteoporosis. A total of 241 osteoporotic patients were enrolled in a 24-month randomized open label study. The control group (without treatment; n = 121) and the vitamin K2–treated group (n = 120), which received 45 mg/day orally vitamin K2, were followed for lumbar bone mineral density (LBMD; measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) and occurrence of new clinical fractures. Serum level of Glu-osteocalcin (Glu-OC) and menaquinone-4 levels were measured at the end of the follow-up period. Serum level of OC and urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were measured before and after the treatment. The background data of these two groups were identical. The incidence of clinical fractures during the 2 years of treatment in the control was higher than the vitamin K2–treated group (χ2 = 10.935; p = 0.0273). The percentages of change from the initial value of LBMD at 6, 12, and 24 months after the initiation of the study were −1.8 ± 0.6%, −2.4 ± 0.7%, and −3.3 ± 0.8% for the control group, and 1.4 ± 0.7%, −0.1 ± 0.6%, and −0.5 ± 1.0% for the vitamin K2–treated group, respectively. The changes in LBMD at each time point were significantly different between the control and the treated group (p = 0.0010 for 6 months, p = 0.0153 for 12 months, and p = 0.0339 for 24 months). The serum levels of Glu-OC at the end of the observation period in the control and the treated group were 3.0 ± 0.3 ng/ml and 1.6 ± 0.1 ng/ml, respectively (p < 0.0001), while the serum level of OC measured by the conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) showed a significant rise (42.4 ± 6.9% from the basal value) in the treated group at 24 months (18.2 ± 6.1% for the controls; p = 0.0081). There was no significant change in urinary DPD excretion in the treated group. These findings suggest that vitamin K2 treatment effectively prevents the occurrence of new fractures, although the vitamin K2–treated group failed to increase in LBMD. Furthermore, vitamin K2 treatment enhances γ-carboxylation of the OC molecule. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.3.515/full

Abstract to North American Article
Low vitamin K status is associated with low BMD and increased fracture risk. Additionally, a specific menaquinone, menatetrenone (MK4), may reduce fracture risk. However, whether vitamin K plays a role in the skeletal health of North American women remains unclear. Moreover, various K vitamers (e.g., phylloquinone and MK4) may have differing skeletal effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of phylloquinone or MK4 treatment on markers of skeletal turnover and BMD in nonosteoporotic, postmenopausal, North American women. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 381 postmenopausal women received phylloquinone (1 mg daily), MK4 (45 mg daily), or placebo for 12 mo. All participants received daily calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSALP) and n-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX) were measured at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD and proximal femur geometry were measured by DXA at baseline and 6 and 12 mo. At baseline, the three treatment groups did not differ in demographics or study endpoints. Compliance with calcium, phylloquinone, and MK4 treatment was 93%, 93%, and 87%, respectively. Phylloquinone and MK4 treatment reduced serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin but did not alter BSALP or NTX. No effect of phylloquinone or MK4 on lumbar spine or proximal femur BMD or proximal femur geometric parameters was observed. This study does not support a role for vitamin K supplementation in osteoporosis prevention among healthy, postmenopausal, North American women receiving calcium and vitamin D supplementation. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1359/jbmr.081254/full










Monday, August 18, 2014

Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis



It is increasingly being recognized that multiple pathogenetic mechanisms interact in the development of the osteoporotic state. Understanding the pathogenesis of osteoporosis starts with knowing how bone formation and remodeling occur.

This image depicts bone remodeling with osteoclasts resorbing one side of a bony trabecula and osteoblasts depositing new bone on the other side. 

Pathophysiology


 This image depicts bone remodeling with osteoclast

Saturday, August 16, 2014

Natto - Fermented Soy Beans

Natto contains 20 to 40mcg of K1, NO MK-4, and 900 to 1200mcg of MK-7,8,9. 

This video shows you what it looks like and how to eat it.

Monday, August 11, 2014

Use of Computed Tomography for Assessing Bone Mineral Density




Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the standard for assessing bone mineral density (BMD) and has been correlated with fracture risk and treatment efficacy. DXA includes the posterior elements of the spine, and therefore may be inaccurate or not possible in cases of severe spinal degeneration, scoliosis, or following lumbar surgery. T-score evaluations are somewhat limited in clinical utility, as the majority of patients who sustain fragility fractures are not in the osteoporotic range.
Assessing local bone quality on CT scans with Hounsfield unit (HU) quantification is being used with increasing frequency. Correlations between HU and bone mineral density have been established, and normative data have been defined throughout the spine. Recent investigations have explored the utility of HU values in assessing fracture risk, implant stability, and spinal fusion success. The information provided by a simple HU measurement can alert the treating physician to decreased bone quality, which can be useful in both medically and surgically managing these patients.
The purpose of this paper is to review the reliability and validity of the techniques used to estimate bone health using CT scans with Hounsfield unit (HU) quantification. Such scans can be used to identify patients at risk for osteoporosis, and these values could be used for surgical planning in cases of trauma, degeneration, and deformity. There was good correlation of HU value to DXA for both BMD and T-score.

Wandering Skeleton

Wandering Skeleton
Artist: Joel Hoekstra

Osteoporotic Bone

Osteoporotic Bone
Source: www.mayoclinic.com

How Strontium Builds Bones

Strontium is a mineral that tends to accumulate in bone. Studies have shown that oral doses of strontium are a safe and effective way to prevent and reverse osteoporosis. Doses of 680 mg per day appear to be optimal. See my "For More Information About Strontium" links section.

Osteoporosis is caused by changes in bone production. In healthy young bones there is a constant cycle of new bone growth and bone removal. With age, more bone is removed and less new bone is produced. The bones become less dense and thus more fragile.

Scientists believe that strontium works in two ways. It may stimulate the replication of pre-osteoblasts, leading to an increase in osteoblasts (cells that build bone). Strontium also directly inhibits the activity of osteoclasts (cells that break down bone). The result is stronger bones.

When taking strontium, be sure to take 1200 mg calcium, 1000 IU vitamin D3, and 500 mg magnesium daily. It is best to take strontium late at night on an empty stomach. Calcium and strontium may compete with each other for absorption if taken together.